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Seattle Coal & Transportation Company begins operating Seattle's first railroad on March 22, 1872.
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On March 22, 1872, the Seattle Coal & Transportation Company begins operating Seattle's first railroad. Established by founders of the Seattle Coal Company, it is used to carry coal from a dock on the south end of Lake Union to coal bunkers at the foot of Pike Street, on Elliott Bay. The coal arrives at the south Lake Union dock via a tortuous route from a mine in Newcastle, located near the south end of Lake Washington. Coal is transported from the Newcastle mine to the Lake Washington shore via tramway. It is then loaded into scows guided across Lake Washington by tugboats. Arriving at a strip of land called the Montlake Portage (later cut through by Montlake Cut), it is unloaded from the scows and loaded onto another tram, carted over Montlake Portage, reloaded onto barges at Lake Union, barged across Lake Union to the dock at south Lake Union, and from there, loaded onto the new railway, which carries it over Denny Hill (later flattened by regrades), roughly along the route of today’s Westlake Avenue. The railway turns at Pike Street and carries the coal to coal bunkers at the end of that street. This little railway will operate until 1878, when the Seattle & Walla Walla Railroad will arrive at Newcastle and provide a more efficient route around the south end of Lake Washington through Renton and through downtown Seattle to Elliott Bay.
Old King Coal in King County
Coal is heavy and it is bulky. Getting it to market from the mine can be as difficult and costly as mining it in the first place. Ever since the black rock was found in the Cascade foothills in central King
County in the 1850s, mining outfits tried to find ways to transport it to Seattle's Elliott Bay. From Elliott Bay it could be shipped to outside markets
Natural resources -- especially coal, timber, and fish --
drove early Seattle's economy. Demand in rapidly growing local communities
and in outside markets, particularly San Francisco, led to rapid construction
of sawmills and fish-processing operations on Puget Sound's bays. But the lack
of an adequate transportation network hindered development of the coal mines in
the Cascade foothills because no roads or railroads connected the mines with
Puget Sound, and the rivers draining Lake Washington were ill-suited for moving
large loads of coal.
Early coal discoveries in King County included a bed uncovered at
the farm of R. H. Bigelow on the Black River in 1853 and a seam found in 1859 at
Squak (later Issaquah) by Lyman B. Andrews (1829-1913) and David Mowery. In
1862, Andrews went back, loaded up a sack of coal, and took it into town. He
approached blacksmith William W. Perkins in Seattle to test the coal and
determine what rank it was, which would indicate its quality and how much
heat it would produce. The quality of the coal was high enough that Perkins agreed to
go into business with Andrews.
market for coal existed because it was used to power machinery, heat homes and
businesses, and fuel the steamers that plied the waters of Puget Sound and
elsewhere. The galloping growth of San Francisco after the 1849 California Gold
Rush led to high demand and high prices for coal to fuel the steam engines
of trains, ships, and machinery.
Still, Andrews and Perkins had to figure out how to get
it to market in the absence of reliable river navigation, roads, or railroads
in King County. In 1864, the San
Francisco Bulletin reprinted a notice from the British Colonist extolling the quality of the coal found at Squak,
but lamenting, "The chief drawback is the distance of the mines from the
seaboard" ("Coal at Seattle").
Coal was bringing in $22 per ton in 1863, making it worthwhile to
pay high costs for transport. Andrews and Perkins developed a system by which
they loaded the coal into wagons, carried it to Lake Sammamish, rowed or poled
the length of that lake on a scow, navigated the winding Squak Slough (now
straightened and renamed the Sammamish River), rowed and poled across and down
Lake Washington, then unloaded on the lake's western shore and hauled it into
Before long, prices dropped to $12 per ton, likely due to competition from newly developed coal mines in the San Francisco
Bay area. The low price did not
compensate for the transportation costs of the coal. The mine lay idle until
1888, when the Seattle Lake Shore & Eastern Railway reached the Issaquah
In 1863 Edwin Richardson, surveying near Cougar Mountain, found
coal in the area that would become known as Coal Creek. He and a number of
other area residents filed claims on the land that would become
Newcastle, named after the famed coal-producing city in England.
In 1866 a group of the claimants, Daniel Bagley (1818-1905), P. H.
Lewis, John Ross, Selucius Garfielde (1822-1881), and George F. Whitworth
(1816-1907) formed the Lake Washington Coal Company to cooperate in their
efforts to mine this coal. The company succeeded in getting coal to the bay
and selling it to steamer operators on Puget Sound. It is not clear how they transported the coal,
but a 1938 article about the development of the Northwest coal industry says
they used a "road opened by the claim owners" (Melder, 154). It is
possible that this was a wagon road around the southern tip of Lake
Washington and then down the Duwamish River valley.
The topography of King County made it difficult to develop transportation
infrastructure between Lake Washington and Elliott Bay. Large hills running
north and south were bisected by river valleys, and, between Lake Union and
Lake Washington, a cleft carved by glacial meltwater. Thick forests covered the hillsides and it took years before wagon roads, often following
Indian trails, were cut through them. Even then, steep hills discouraged
any idea of moving tons of coal over them. Limited local capital also
stymied plans. Building a railroad required cash, and efforts to get outside
investors interested in the projects fell flat.
In 1870, the Seattle Coal Company, incorporated and
took over the Lake Washington Coal Company. The Seattle Coal Company planned to
sell to California markets, but first had to get transport costs down. To that end, several
of the owners formed the Seattle Coal &
Transportation Company to transport the coal. They built a tramway down
to Lake Washington, where they loaded the cars onto barges, which were pulled across
the lake by tugs, such as the Phantom,
Fanny, Chehalis, Linnie C, Gray, and the James Mortie.
At the Montlake Portage
they built another tramway that allowed them to carry the coal cars across the
isthmus to Portage Bay on Lake Union. At first they used mules to pull the coal
cars across the portage, a distance of about one-fourth of a mile. Soon they acquired a
locomotive. On the Lake Union side, they loaded the cars back onto barges and towed
them to the southern end of the lake. There, a railroad, Seattle's first, was
built approximately along the present-day route of Westlake Avenue and Pike
a bunker -- a large bin-like structure built on pilings out over the water -- the
coal cars were dumped down a slide that fed into the bunkers or directly into
ships waiting to carry it to San Francisco.
Decidedly a Holiday
The railroad opened on March 22, 1872, and the line's superintendent,
Samuel Dinsmore, planned a day of free rides and boat excursions to celebrate. According to The
Intelligencer, "Friday last was decidedly a holiday in this city,
owing to the opportunity afforded every one to indulge in the novelty of a free ride behind the first locomotive that every
whistled and snorted and dashed through the dense forests surrounding the
waters of Puget Sound" ("The Railroad Excursion").
The Puget Sound Dispatch also gushed with
excitement: "it is the initial of mighty events ... the connection by railroad
of ocean commerce with the inland seas, whereby an inexhaustible mine of wealth
is opened to perpetual use" ("A Gala Day").
A Difficult Route
The portage route worked before better alternatives existed,
but it was less than ideal. In order to move the coal cars between the
different modes of transportation, they had to be handled 11 times, increasing
costs significantly. The route was used until 1878, when the Seattle &
Walla Walla reached Newcastle. This railroad connected the mine directly with
the Seattle waterfront by traveling along Lake Washington to the southern end of downtown Seattle and to Elliott Bay. Coal cars only had to be handled twice. At this time the Seattle Coal & Transportation Company abandoned their route.
But in that first decade of coal production, the company played a vital role in the development of Seattle's economy. The 790,629 tons of coal sent out of the wharves at Seattle between 1870 and 1880 brought much needed cash into the community and
helped further improve the regional transportation network.
Kurt E. Armbruster, Orphan Road: The Railroad Comes to Seattle, 1853-1911 (Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1999), 49-59, 128; Clarence Bagley, History of Seattle from the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time (Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1916); F. E. Melder, "History of the Discoveries and
Physical Development of the Coal Industry in the State of Washington," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, April 1938, pp. 151-165; Caroline C. Tobin,
"Lake Union and Ship Canal Historical Use Study," typescript dated June 1986, prepared for the City of Seattle Lake Union/Ship Canal/Shilshole Bay Water Quality Management Program, available at Coastal Zone Information Center, Charleston, South Carolina, and online
(www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CZIC-td225-s4-t73-1986/pdf/CZIC-td225-s4-t73-1986.pdf); U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 49 Cong., 1 sess., January 1, 1886, p. 1055; "Coal at Seattle," San Francisco Bulletin, August 26, 1864, p. 2; "A Gala Day," Puget Sound
Dispatch, March 28, 1872, p. 3; "Coal Mining," Clayton Historical
Society and Museum website accessed October 24, 2012 (http://www.claytonhistory.org/Pages/coalmining.aspx); "The Railroad Excursion," The Weekly Intelligencer, March 25, 1872, p. 3.
Note: This essay replaces an earlier essay on the same subject.
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Seattle Coal & Transportation Co. locomotive at the Lake Union dock, Seattle, ca. 1871
Courtesy Museum of History & Industry (Image No. 2002.3.437)
Waterfront with Pike Street coal bunker in distance, Seattle, ca. 1876
Photo by Asahel Curtis, Courtesy UW Special Collections (Neg. No. UW7227)
Detail, "Bird's Eye View of the City of Seattle, Puget Sound, Washington Territory, 1878," showing Seattle Coal & Transportation train emerging from woods on edge of town, Seattle, 1878
Created by E. S. Glover, Courtesy Library of Congress (Image No. 75696660)
Coal cars on a barge, Lake Whatcom, July 27, 1898
Photo by L. Heath, Courtesy UW Special Collections (Neg. No. UW26223z)