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Topic: Northwest Indians

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Fort Walla Walla

There were no fewer than four outposts named Fort Walla Walla, but the last and most enduring was established as a cavalry post on March 18, 1858. This military reservation housed soldiers who would f...

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Forts of Washington Territory, Indian War Era, 1855-1856

The era of the treaty wars in Washington Territory lasted from 1855-1856.Territorial Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs Isaac Stevens (1818-1862) ordered the building of forts and blockhous...

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Frank, Billy Jr. (1931-2014)

Billy Frank Jr. served as chair of the Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission (NWIFC) for most of its first 30 years. He committed his life to protecting his Nisqually people's traditional way of life ...

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Ginkgo Petrified Forest State Park

Ginkgo Petrified Forest State Park contains the remains of one of the most unusual fossil forests in the world. It was set aside as a historic preserve in the 1930s, after highway construction crews w...

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Gobin, Bernie (1930-2009)

Bernie "Kai Kai" Gobin (his Indian name means "blue jay" or "wise one") was a fisherman, artist, musician, and political leader on the Tulalip Reservation, where he lived most of his life. Gobin's for...

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Gold in the Pacific Northwest

The discovery of gold in California in 1848 sent would-be millionaires on a quest for treasure throughout the West. By 1900, major strikes had been made in Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, Alaska, and western C...

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Hansen, Cecile: Tribal Chairwoman of Seattle's Duwamish Peoples

Cecile Ann Hansen -- a descendant within the family of Chief Si 'ahl ("Chief Seattle") -- has served as the elected chair of her people since 1975. During those decades the Duwamish (or in the Salish ...

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Hilbert, Vi (1918-2008)

Vi Hilbert, a member of the Upper Skagit tribe, had as her life's work to preserve the Lushootseed (Puget Salish) language and culture. Vi learned Lushootseed (the language of Chief Seattle) as a chil...

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History Day award winner -- Far-Reaching Rights: An Era of Innovation in Treaty Law in Washington State that Impacted the Rights of Aboriginal Peoples Worldwide by Jacob Ziontz

Jacob Ziontz, was a tenth-grade student in teacher Mikael Christensen's class at Shorewood High School when he won the 2010 HistoryLink.org award, senior division, for this essay on the history of Pac...

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History Day award winner -- Neah Bay Whaling Conflict: Upholding a Compromise by Kendal Crawford

Kendal Crawford, a 14-year-old eighth-grade student at Canyon Park Junior High School in the Northshore district, won first place in the Junior Division, Historical Paper Category, of the 2008 North P...

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History Day award winner -- Trust in Treaties: How Tragedy Turned to Triumph for Puget Sound Native American Fishing Rights by Jacob Bruce

Jacob Bruce, a 12-year-old student in the 7th Grade at Kingston Junior High School, won second place in the 2007 History Day competition with this essay on Native American fishing rights.

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HistoryLink Elementary: Prehistoric Tools and Weapons

Archaeological finds in various locations across Washington have helped scientists learn about how the earliest residents of this state lived. (This essay was written for students in third and fourth ...

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Holm, Bill (1925-2020)

Bill Holm was curator emeritus of Northwest Indian art at the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture in Seattle, a professor emeritus of art and anthropology at the University of Washington, and ...

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Hudson's Bay Company

The Hudson's Bay Company, a fur-trading enterprise headquartered in London, began operations on the shores of Hudson Bay in 1670. During the next century and a half, it gradually expanded its network ...

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Indian Henry (So-To-Lick) (ca. 1820-1895)

There is a place on the lower southwestern slopes of Mt. Rainier that has been called one of the "loveliest alpine meadows and probably the most famous single view of the mountain" (Spring and Manning...

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Indigenous Hop Pickers in Western Washington

Hops, the bitter plant used for beer flavoring, were in high demand in national and international markets in the last half of the nineteenth century, and conditions in river valleys of the Puget Sound...

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James, Bill (1944-2020)

Bill James, a Lummi textile and basket weaver, environmental activist, and tribal historian, absorbed the artistic and cultural traditions of his tribe as a means to both revitalize Coast Salish weavi...

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Japanese Castaways of 1834: The Three Kichis

The first Japanese known to have visited what is now Washington arrived in a dismasted, rudderless ship that ran aground on the northernmost tip of the Olympic Peninsula sometime in January 1834. The ...

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Jones, Johnpaul (b. 1941)

One of perhaps 100 Native American architects in the United States, architect Johnpaul Jones has manifested his Choctaw/Cherokee heritage in the creation of an internationally significant legacy of pr...

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Jules, Charles (Schay nam'kin) (1846-1935)

Chief Charles Jules (Schay nam'kin) was held in high regard by members of the Snohomish and related bands that would eventually become the Tulalip Tribes, as well as by his white contemporaries. Jules...

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Kauffman, Claudia (b. 1959)

Claudia Kauffman was the first woman Native American elected to the Washington State Senate. She was raised in the Beacon Hill neighborhood of Seattle where her mother, Josephine, championed American ...

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Kennewick Man (The Ancient One)

A man who lived 8,500 years ago along the Columbia River in what is now central Washington's Tri-Cities area became the center of worldwide attention and heated controversy following the 1996 discover...

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Kettle Falls

Kettle Falls, on the upper Columbia River about 40 miles south of the Canadian border, was once one of the most important fishing and gathering places for Native Americans in the Northwest. Salish spe...

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King County Historical Bibliography, Part 02: Arthur C. Ballard's Bibliography on the Puget Sound Salish

This bibliography of the work of anthropologist Arthur C. Ballard (1876-1962) on the Puget Sound Salish Indians includes a biography of Ballard. It was prepared as a community history resource by staf...

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